AFP is a type of tumor marker produced by cancer cells or normal cells in response to cancer. High levels of AFP can indicate cancer of the liver, ovaries, or testicles. However, other non-cancerous conditions can also increase AFP levels, so this test alone can't fully diagnose cancer.
This test helps monitor certain cancers during and after treatment and checks for recurrence. It can identify early signs of ovarian cancer in high-risk patients. Some non-cancerous conditions can increase the level of this protein, such as menstruation and uterine fibroids. Certain cancers may also cause an increased level of CA 125, including ovarian, endometrial, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancers.
If your CA 15-3 results are elevated, additional testing is needed to diagnose breast cancer. If the elevation is minimal, you may need to watch, wait, and order a repeat test 4-6 weeks later. The CA 15-3 elevations in non-cancerous conditions tend to be stable over time. If elevation persists or increases, you may need additional testing, such as breast ultrasound, mammography, or a CT scan
The CA 19.9 quantitative test screens for abnormalities related to the pancreas and bile.
Cancer antigen CA72-4 is a tumor marker found elevated in various human malignant tumors, including ovarian, gastrointestinal (i.e., stomach, colon, and small bowel), and pancreatic cancer. It is used to manage metastatic and recurrent cancer and assess antitumor therapy response.
Calcitonin is a hormone your thyroid makes that helps control how the body uses calcium. Calcitonin is also a type of tumor marker produced by cancer cells or normal cells in response to cancer. A calcitonin test is often used to diagnose or evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and to detect the reoccurrence of medullary thyroid cancer.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein of the developing fetus. CEA levels gradually decrease or disappear after birth. In adults, abnormal CEA levels can indicate cancer. Smoking can also increase CEA. The test helps monitor treatment and checks for the recurrence of cancers of the colon, thyroid gland, rectum, lung, breast, liver, pancreas, stomach, and ovaries.
CYFRA 21-1 is useful as a tumor marker, especially for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), CEA, SCC, and other epithelial tumors such as in bladder cancer. This elevation in tumors may be due to cell lysis releasing cell contents into the blood.
PSA is a protein made by the prostate, part of the male reproductive system. Most PSA in the blood is bound to serum proteins. A small amount is not protein-bound and is called free PSA. In men with prostate cancer, the ratio of free (unbound) PSA to total PSA is decreased. The lower the ratio, the greater the probability of prostate cancer.
PSA is a protein your prostate produces. Most PSA in the blood is bound to serum proteins. A small amount is not protein bound and is called free PSA. In men with prostate cancer, the ratio of free (unbound) PSA to total PSA is decreased. The lower the ratio, the greater the probability of prostate cancer.